In the United States, the UK, and other developed countries there have been ongoing criticisms of executive compensation over recent decades which increased following the financial crisis of 2008. The criticisms have focused primarily on the level of pay received by executives, so-called “quantum,” and the perceived lack of a robust connection between executive compensation and performance, most commonly measured as returns to shareholders. In response, the critics have suggested approaches for addressing these concerns, including, changing the tax and/or accounting treatment of certain forms of executive compensation, expanding shareholder rights over pay, and increasing the amount of mandated disclosure of pay. To date, these initiatives do not appear to have lowered executive pay or changed the views of critics that pay and performance are not closely linked. In response to the perceived inability to restrain executive pay, a new proposed approach is emerging under the label of "simplification” of executive compensation design.